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*Tender Coconut Water

Coconut water refers to the liquid endosperm of a tender coconut at an age of approximately 9 months from time of pollination, the period before the solid endosperm or white meat forms. It is a pure and nutritious beverage in the natural state. The coconut husk is an excellent package for the water which contains sugars, minerals, amino acids and vitamins.
Tender coconut water is a natural source of electrolytes, minerals, vitamins, complex carbohydrates, Amino acids and other nutrients. The natural carbohydrate content is between 4-5% of the liquid solution. This make coconut water particularly suitable for the burgeoning sports drink market. According to Sports Science Institute (USA), sports drinks containing under 5% carbohydrates are likely to provide benefits, while those exceeding 10% carbohydrate content, like most soft drinks are associated with abdominal cramps, nausea and diarrhea.
Isotonic and bacetriologically sterile properties of fresh coconut water, straight out of the nut, promoted its use as a direct plasma replacement by military forces in the Asian theatre of combat during World War II.
It has caloric value of 17.4 per 100gm. "It is unctuous, sweet, increasing semen, promoting digestion and clearing the urinary path," says Ayurveda on tender coconut water (TWC).


Numerous medicinal properties of tender coconut water reported are:- 

  1. Good for feeding infants suffering from intestinal disturbances. 
  2. Oral rehydration medium
  3. Contains organic compounds possessing growth promoting properties
  4. Keeps the body cool
  5. Application on the body prevents prickly heat and summer boils and subsides the rashes caused by small pox, chicken pox, measles, etc.
  6. Kills intestinal worms
  7. Presence of saline and albumen makes it a good drink in cholera cases
  8. Checks urinary infections. 
  9. Excellent tonic for the old and sick
  10. Cures malnourishment.
  11. Diuretic
  12. Effective in the treatment of kidney and urethral stones
  13. Can be injected intravenously in emergency case.
  14. Found as blood plasma substitute because it is sterile, does not produce heat, does not destroy red blood cells and is readily accepted by the body.
  15. Aids the quick absorption of the drugs and makes their peak concentration in the blood easier by its electrolytic effect.
  16. Urinary antiseptic and eliminates poisons in case of mineral poisoning.

"Itís a natural isotonic beverage with the same level of electrolytic balance as we have in our blood. Itís the fluid of life, so to speak," says Mr. Morton Satin, Chief of FAOís Agricultural Industries and Post Harvest Management Service.
The major chemical constituents of coconut water are sugars and minerals and minor ones are fat and nitrogenous substances.

Average composition of tender coconut (per nut) (6-8 months old)

Variety Age
solids %
Tall 6/8 2,933 349.3 92 2,501 5.2 0.06 4.6
Yellow Dwarf 7/8 2,443 327.5 62.1 2,056 4.8 0.10 5.0
Orange Dwarf 7/8 2,753 319.2 92.3 2,350 4.8 0.06 6.4
Green Dwarf 6/8 2,360 435.3 33.2 2,176 4.8 0.09 5.6


Analysis of Mature and Tender Coconut Water

  Mature Coconut Water Tender Coconut Water
Total solids% 5.4 6.5
Reducing sugars % 0.2 4.4
Minerals % 0.5 0.6
Protein % 0.1   0.01
Fat % 0.1   0.01
Acidity mg % 60.0   120.0    
pH 5.2 4.5
Potassium mg% 247.0     290.0    
Sodium mg% 48.0    42.0  
Calcium mg% 40.0    44.0  
Magnesium mg % 15.0    10.0  
Phosphorous mg% 6.3  9.2
Iron mg% 79.0    106.0    
Copper mg% 26.0    26.0  
Source: Satyavati Krishnankutty (1987)


Sugars in the forms of glucose and fructose form an important constituent of the tender nut water. The concentration of sugars in the nut water steadily increases from about 1.5 per cent to about 5 - 5.5 per cent in the early months of maturation and then slowly falls reaching about 2 per cent at the stage of the full maturity of the nut. In the early stages of maturity sugars are in the form of glucose and fructose (reducing sugars) and sucrose (non-reducing sugar) appears only in later stages which increases with the maturity while the reducing sugars fall. In the fully mature nut approximately 90 per cent of the total sugars is sucrose.


Tender coconut water contains most of the minerals such as potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphorous, iron, copper, sulphur and chlorides. Among the minerals more than half is potassium the concentration of which is markedly influenced by potash manuring. Tender coconut water being rich in potassium and other minerals plays a major role to increase the urinary output.


Coconut water contains small amounts of protein. The percentage of arginine, alanine, cystine and serene in the protein of tender coconut water are higher than those in cowís milk. Since it does not contain any complex protein the danger of producing shock to the patients is minimised.

Amino Acid Composition of Coconut Water 
(% of total protein)

Alanine 2.41
Arginine 10.75
Aspartic acid 3.60
Cystine 0.97 - 1.17
Glutamic acid 9.76 - 14.5
Histidine 1.95 - 2.05
Leucine 1.95 - 4.18
Lysine 1.95 - 4.57
Proline 1.21 - 4.12
Phenylalanine 1.23
Serine 0.59 - 0.91
Tyrosine 2.83 - 3.00
Source: Pradera et al, 1942


Tender coconut water contains both ascorbic acid and vitamins of B group. The concentration of ascorbic acid ranges from 2.2 to 3.7mg per ml, which gradually diminishes as the kernel surrounding the water begins to harden.

Vitamins of B Group in Coconut Water
Nicotinic acid 0.64 microgram / ml
Pantothenic acid 0.52 ,,
Biotin 0.02 ,,
Riboflavin < 0.01 ,,
Folic acid 0.003 ,,
Thiamine Trace ,,
Pyridoxine Trace ,,
Source: The Wealth of India (1950)


Minimal Processing of Tender coconut water

Perishability of tender coconut is relatively high and once the tender coconuts are detached from the bunches its natural freshness will get lost within 24 to 36 hours even under refrigerated conditions unless treated scientifically. The bulkiness of tender coconut is due to the husk which accounts for two-third of the volume of tender nut.

Handling of tender coconuts will be easy if a major part of the husk is removed. But, when partial removal of husk is done the colour of the nut will be changed to brown thereby reducing the attractiveness of the nut. Technologies for minimal processing of tender coconut have been developed for retaining the flavour and to prevent discolouration. The technology for minimal processing of tender coconut developed by Kerala Agricultural University (KAU) involves dipping partially dehusked tender coconut in a solution of 0.50% citric acid and 0.50% potassium metabisulphate for three minutes. The product can be stored up to 24 days in refrigerated condition at 5-7 degree centigrade. By using this process, tender coconut can be transported to distant place served chilled like any other soft drink. Optimized uniform size facilitates using of plastic crates and insulated chill boxes for transporting and storage.

Preservation and Packing Tender coconut water in pouches/ aluminium cans

The Coconut Development Board in collaboration with Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore has developed the technology for packing tender coconut water in pouches/ aluminium cans with shelf life of more than six months under normal ambience condition and 12 months under refrigerated condition. The process involves collection of tender coconut water under hygienic conditions, up gradation and pasteurization, filtration and packaging either in Bottles or cans as the case may be. Additives such as nissin and sweeteners will be added to the product.

Project Profile of Preservation and Packing of Tender Coconut Water

Project Profile of Coconut Vinegar

Project Profile of Nata-de-coco

Snow ball tender nut

Snow ball tender nut is a tender coconut without husk, shell and testa which is ball shaped and white in colour. Coconut of 8 month old is more suitable for making SBTN in which there is no decrease in quantity of tender water and the kernel is sufficiently soft. The process has been developed for making the SBTN. Important steps involved in the process are dehusking of the nut, making groove in the shell and scooping of the tender kernel in ball shape without breakage by using a scooping tool. The groove has to make by using a machine which is under the progress of development.

Tender coconut nutrition - other links

Times of India web 20-4-12

India Today July 2012

Green Med website


Nutrition and you website

Wikipedia website

Home Remedies Web


knowledgebase website website

Natural Website


FAO Website website website


Las Vegas Review Journal

Green Med 20-5-12

State Journal website


The Epoch Times 26-7-12

Sandiago Reader 8-8-12

Phenom Coconut water 4-8-12 21-8-12 20-8-12 22-8-12


Nutra 21-8-12

HuffPost Lifestyle 21-8-12

Jagran 23-8-12


Yahoo Sports 23-8-12

Times of India 23-8-12


India Today website Feb 12

The Daily Helmsman website

The New Indian Express 29-8-12

abc News


The Hindu Website 19-3-12

NDTV CooKS - 7-11-12

The 22-1-13 18-1-13

Deming 13-12-12 21-5-13 3-5-13


Kisan World July 13 22-4-13 - 26-6-13


Mens 20-7-13 - 27-6-13  25-7-13 21-10-13 25-7-13 4-10-13 20-5-14

Times of India 21-1-14

Aarogyasasthram Feb-13 10-9-15 12-6-14

Naija247News 11-11-15


Boldsky -24-12-15

Business Standard 7-1-16

Business Line 8-1-16


Smiling diaries


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